ADHD is an acronym for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. It’s a psychological disorder. Attention, the ability to sit still, and self-control are all affected in children with ADHD due to abnormalities in brain growth and activity. ADHD can have an impact on a child’s schoolwork, home life, and friendships.
ADHD affects about 11% of children between the ages of four and seventeen. Between the ages of three and six, children with ADHD begin to show symptoms. The average age at which a child is diagnosed with ADHD is seven years old. It is three times more common in young boys than in young girls.
Symptoms may reduce as you become older. Some people, however, never fully recover from their ADHD symptoms. They can, however, develop successful tactics.
Although ADHD does not go away, many adults can learn to manage it successfully. ADHD is a lifelong illness that can be effectively controlled with medication and behavioral therapy.
Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyper Activity in Children
Children, teenagers, and adults with ADHD engage in three types of fundamental behaviors on a regular basis:
• Inattentiveness: Inability to maintain focus on tasks.
• Impulsivity: Acting on irrational impulses, such as speaking up in class, tossing a toy, or interrupting someone in the discussion. Adults’ impulses may be irresponsible, such as spending excessive amounts of money.
• Hyperactivity: Fidgeting, difficulty to stay sat when sitting is required, such as in church or school, and moving or climbing when it is not suitable.
Types of Attention Deficit Hyper Activity in Children
Types of ADHD include the following:
Type 2 ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). This kind of ADHD is marked by impulsive and hyperactive behaviors, as well as inattention and distractibility.
Impulsive/hyperactive kind of ADHD. This kind of ADHD is distinguished by impulsive and hyperactive activities rather than inattention and distractibility.
Inattentive and distractible kind of ADHD. This kind of ADHD is characterized by a lack of hyperactivity and a high level of inattention and distractibility.
Causes of Attention Deficit Hyper Activity in Children
ADHD is one of the most investigated topics of mental health in children and adolescents. The exact source of the illness, however, is yet unknown. According to the data, ADHD is a genetic disorder. It’s a biological condition that affects the brain. Children with ADHD have low amounts of dopamine (a brain chemical) and neurotransmitters (a type of brain chemical). PET scanners (positron emission tomography; a type of brain imaging that allows researchers to see the human brain at work) studies suggest that in children with ADHD, brain metabolism is lower in the areas of the brain that control attention, social judgment, and movement.
Complications of Attention Deficit Hyper Activity in Children
If ADHD is not treated and people are left to manage their symptoms on their own, symptoms will persist. Adults may suffer from employment, schooling, interactions with friends and family, and other issues, while children may struggle at school, at home, and in social circumstances. ADHD makes life more difficult than it needs to be.
Prevention of Attention Deficit Hyper Activity in Children
Children’s ADHD has been connected to environmental pollutants. For example, parents might get their home tested for lead to avoid lead poisoning, which raises the chance of ADHD. Avoiding smoking, alcohol, and drugs when pregnant with your child is another strategy to help minimize the chance of ADHD.
Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyper Activity in Children
Although there is no specific test for ADHD, the following factors are likely to be considered when making a diagnosis:
A medical examination to rule out any other potential causes of symptoms.
Gathering information about any current medical problems, personal and family medical histories, and school records
Interviews or questionnaires for family members, teachers, and anyone who are familiar with your children, such as nannies, babysitters, and coaches
ADHD criteria from the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)
ADHD rating scales to aid in the gathering and evaluation of data about your kid
Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyper Activity in Children
Treatment for Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder usually includes behavior therapies, medication, or both.
The medications of ADHD work by influencing the brain chemicals to help you to control better your actions and impulses. The main medications to treat ADHD are stimulants and non-stimulants. Central nervous system stimulants are commonly prescribed medicines for ADHD. These medicines increase the production of dopamine and norepinephrine i.e. the brain chemicals. E.g. amphetamine-based stimulants (Adderall) and methylphenidate (Ritalin)
If stimulants bring side effects, the doctor possibly will suggest a non-stimulant medicine. Non-stimulant medicines work by increasing norepinephrine production in the brain. E.g. atomoxetine (Strattera), some anti-depressants such as bupropion (Wellbutrin) are also used to treat depression caused by ADHD.
Behavioral / Psychological therapy for ADHD
Individuals with ADHD often benefit from psychological therapy, provided by an expert psychiatrist, psychologist, or other mental health professionals. Some individuals with ADHD might also have other conditions such as depression or anxiety. In this case, counseling can help with both ADHD and comorbidities.
Types of psychological therapy for ADHD include:
Behavioral therapy: Parents or partners of the affected individuals can learn multiple strategies, for dealing with difficult situations of their loved ones who are affected with ADHD, it also teaches the affected ones ways to replace bad behaviors with good ones
Social skills training: This training can help the affected children and adults to learn appropriate social behaviors and coping skills
Parenting skills training: It helps parents to learn different ways to understand their child with ADHD and to learn different ways to deal with them
Psychotherapy: Helps individuals with ADHD to learn better ways to cope with frustration, impulsive behaviors, and emotions. It helps to improve self-esteem. Counseling might help the family members to understand the affected child or adult with ADHD.