Dyslexia is a learning problem that makes it difficult for a person to spell, talk, read, and write. It affects the area of the brain that process language. It is characterized by the brain’s processing of graphic symbols and word sounds. It frequently interferes with word recognition, spelling, and the ability to match letters to sounds.

Overview

Dyslexia occurs more often in individuals then we may think.  Some specialists say it affects 5 to 10% of the population, while others believe it affects 17% of the population. Everyone’s dyslexia is unique. Some people have a minor version of dyslexia and they learn to compensate for it, while others have more difficulty coping with it. Even if children do not totally overcome it, they can attend college and prosper in life. There is no treatment for dyslexia but early detection and management yield the best results. Dyslexia can go undiagnosed for years and not be identified until adulthood. It is never too late to get assistance. Receiving a diagnosis, counselling, and support from a young age can help lessen the severity of the problem.

Dyslexia

Types of Dyslexia

There are three primary types of dyslexia:

Primary dyslexia: This is the most prevalent and it is caused by a malfunction of the cerebral cortex. Individuals with this type of dyslexia who receive adequate educational assistance will be academically successful. Primary dyslexia is either inherited or can be the result of genetic changes. It is more frequent in boys.

• Secondary dyslexia: This is also known as developmental dyslexia. It is caused by abnormalities with brain development during the early stages of fetal development. It lessens as the child grows older.

• Trauma dyslexia: This type is frequently caused by brain trauma or damage to the part of the brain that regulates reading and writing. It is rarely seen in today’s school-age population.

Other sorts of learning disabilities are as follows:

• Visual dyslexia is frequently used interchangeably with a visual processing disorder. This is a condition in which the brain fails to correctly interpret visual data.

• Auditory processing dysfunction has been referred to as auditory dyslexia. There are issues with the brain’s processing of sounds and words, which is similar to visual processing dysfunction.

• Dysgraphia refers to a child’s trouble gripping and managing a pencil in order to make accurate lines on paper.

Signs and symptoms of Dyslexia

• Early language development is delayed.
• Problems distinguishing between similar sounds or segmenting words.
• Learning new vocabulary terms at a slow pace
• Copying from a board or a book is difficult.
• Learning reading, writing, and spelling abilities can be difficult.
• Even if it involves a favorite film or novel, a child may not be able to recall the information.
• Problems with spatial connections can be detected outside of the classroom, on the playground. The child may seem clumsy and have trouble participating in organized sports or games.
• Left and right-hand difficulty are prevalent, and dominance for either hand is frequently lacking.

Auditory issues in dyslexia affect a wide range of functions.

• It is common for a child to have trouble remembering or comprehending what he hears.
• It might be difficult to recall sequences of objects or more than one instruction at a time.
• Parts of phrases or entire sentences may be lost, and words may sound strange.
• The incorrect or similar term may be used instead.
• Children who struggle with this issue may know what they want to say but struggle to find the words to communicate their feelings.

Many subtle indications might be seen in dyslexic children.

• Children who grow withdrawn and appear depressed. 
• They may begin to act out in order to divert attention away from their learning disability.
• Self-esteem issues might occur, and peer and sibling interactions can become difficult.
• The child may lose interest in school-related activities and look unmotivated or lethargic.
• Emotional symptoms and indicators are equally as essential as academic symptoms and signals and demand equal attention.

Causes of Dyslexia

About 40% of siblings of persons with dyslexia struggle with reading as well. As many as 49% of parents of children with dyslexia suffer from it as well. Scientists have also discovered genes associated with difficulties reading and comprehending language.

Brain imaging studies have revealed variations in brain anatomy between those with and without dyslexia. These changes occur in regions of the brain associated with key reading abilities. These abilities include understanding how sounds are expressed in words and recognizing the appearance of written words.

Risk factors of Dyslexia

Risk factors usually involve:
• A family history of dyslexia or other learning difficulties in the family
• Premature or underweight birth
• Pregnancy exposure to nicotine, drugs, alcohol, or illness that may affect fetal brain development
• Variances in the areas of the brain that allow for reading based on individual differences

Complications of Dyslexia

Dyslexia can cause a variety of issues, including:

• Difficulties learning. Because reading is a fundamental ability for most other school courses, a child with dyslexia will be at a disadvantage in most classrooms and may struggle to stay up with peers.

• Social issues. Dyslexia, if left untreated, can result in low self-esteem, behavioral issues, anxiety, anger, and detachment from friends, parents, and teachers.

• Issues in adulthood. A child’s failure to read and comprehend might impede him or her from realizing his or her full potential when the child gets older. This has the potential to have long-term educational, societal, and economic effects.

• Children with dyslexia are more likely to develop attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and vice versa.

Diagnosis of Dyslexia

According to the International Association of Dyslexia, diagnostic assessments usually cover the following areas:
• background information, involving the family history and the history of early development
• intelligence / cognition
• word recognition
• oral language skills
• reading comprehension
• fluency skills
• vocabulary knowledge
• decoding (the capacity to read new words based on letter-sound expertise)
• phonological processing, or how the brain interprets word sounds

During the examination, the examiner will try to rule out any other illnesses that may be causing similar symptoms. Vision issues, hearing disability, a lack of education, and social and economic circumstances are all examples.

Treatment of Dyslexia

Early discovery, evaluation, and proper treatment can lead to a successful outcome. 

Methods of education

• Dyslexia is addressed with specialized educational approaches and procedures. The earlier intervention begins, the better the results.
• Psychological assessment will assist your child’s instructors in developing an appropriate educational program.

Treatment is geared on assisting the child in the following ways:
• Recognize and employ the tiniest sounds that comprise words (phonemes)
• Recognize that these sounds and words are represented by letters and string of letters (phonics)
• Understand what he or she is reading
• Practice reading aloud to improve reading accuracy, speed, and expressiveness (fluency)
• Develop a vocabulary of terms that are known and comprehended.

Individual education plan

It outlines your child’s needs and how the school will help him or her succeed.

Early treatment

Children who do not receive assistance until they are in the later grades may have a more difficult time mastering the skills required to read successfully. A child with severe dyslexia may never be able to read well, but he or she can master reading skills and build methods to enhance school performance and quality of life.

As a parent of a dyslexic child, you can take the following actions: 

• Resolve the issue as quickly as feasible.
• Share a book with your youngster.
• Collaborate with your child’s school.
• Promote reading time
• Set a good reading example.

Coping strategies for adults with dyslexia

Adults who struggle with dyslexia may find it challenging to find work. To assist in achieving your objectives:
• Regardless of your age, get an examination and instructional assistance with reading and writing.
• Inquire with your job or academic institution about further training and suitable adjustments.